This book is devoted to the synthetic and physical chemistry of aromatic thiols and their closest derivatives, sulfides, sulfoxides, sulfones, including those substituted by various functional groups such as acyl and thioacyl, alkoxide, ester, hydroxyl and halogens. In some cases, for comparison, selenium and oxygen analogues are also detailed. The main focus of the book is on synthetic methods, both traditional and new, based on the use of transition metals as catalysts, as well as the reactivity of the compounds obtained. Its addition to the influence of conformational and electronic factors on spectral (NMR, IR, UV, NQR) and electrochemical characteristics of the compounds is presented. Finally, the book describes the application of aromatic thiols and their derivatives as drug precursors, high-tech materials, building blocks for organic synthesis, analytical reagents and additives for oils and fuels. It is a useful handbook for all those interested in organosulfur chemistry.